methysticum) (Piper Instant
Super Kava Powder (Piper
The plants build up alkaloids during dry seasons
and draw upon them for growth when the rains come. If the plants are harvested
during or after a wet spell, the alkaloid content may have dropped below 50
percent. If you have a soil test kit, you can get a good indication of the potency of
cacti growing wild. If the soil is rich in nitrogen, the plants are likely to be rich in
When harvesting peyote, many people uproot the entire plant. This is
unnecessary and wasteful. The roots contain no mescaline. Some of these plants
have taken a long time to reach their size. A cactus three inches in diameter may
be more than 20 years old. To collect peyote properly the button should be
cleanly decapitated slightly above ground level. When the roots are left intact
new buds will form where the old was removed. These will eventually develop
into full-size buttons which may be harvested as before. Faulty harvesting
method have seriously depleted populations of this cactus. Because of the
presence of several phenolic alkaloids peyote cacti do not spoil easily and may
be kept in their fresh form for several weeks after harvesting. If they are to be
kept longer than this they must be refrigerated, frozen, or dried. The enzymes
which cause the harvested plant to eventually decompose also destroy the
mescaline and other alkaloids. To dry peyote buttons lay them out in the hot sun
or in an oven at 250 degrees F until completely devoid of moisture.
OTHER PEYOTE-TYPE CACTI OF CENTRAL MEXICO
There are several cacti which are used by the Tarahumares and other tribes of
central Mexico as substitutes for peyote. Many of these cacti are now under
investigation for their alkaloidal content and sychopharmacological activity.
Progress is somewhat retarded in the studies of the effects of these plants
because almost all experimentation has been conducted on laboratory animals
rather than humans. Some of these cacti have been found to contain mescaline
and other related alkaloids with known sympathomimetic properties. Much further
research is needed on these plants and their activity. However, we will attempt to
bring the reader up to date on what is known about them at this time.
This small cactus is botanically called PELECYPHORA ASELLIFORMIS. It is
also known sometimes as the hatchet cactus because of its oddly flattened
tubercules. It is often found growing in the state of San Louis Potosi in central
Mexico. The plant contains traces of mescaline too minute to have any effect. It
also contains small amounts of anhalidine, anhaladine, hordenine, Nmethylmescaline,
pellotine, 3-demethyltrichocereine, B-phenethylamine, Nmethyl-
B-phenethylamine, 3,4-dimethoxy-B-pheneththyl-amine, N-methyl-3,4-
dimethoxy-B-phenethylamine, and 4-methoxy-B-phenethy- lamine. Most of these
are found in peyote but in much larger quantities.
The botanical name of this cactus is ARIOCARPUS RETUSUS. The Huichol
name tsuwiri means F
1 Vine Vine Red Caapi) Vine Simplex
These can be used in hot and cold drinks
ayahuasca pdf Simplex Ayahuasca Retreat Articles Root Bark Mimosa Hostilis Mimosa or this reaction is about 25° C throughout.
When all the methyl nitrite has been bubbled into the reaction
mixture, stirring should be continued for another hour. Then, if
palladium bromide was used, it should be filtered out. Repeated
filtrations will be needed to remove all of the catalyst, because it gets
quite finely divided during the course of the reaction. This leaves a
clear light-reddish solution. If palladium bromide was used, now
adjust pH to 4-7, and allow another hour to complete the hydrolysis.
If palladium chloride or the mixed catalyst was used, these
substances are soluble in alcohol. In this case, the catalyst will be
recovered later. Here, check the pH of the solution again to be sure it is
in the proper range before proceeding.
Now the alcohol solvent must be removed. This is best done by
pouring the reaction mixture into a large filtering flask, stoppering the
top of the flask, and removing the solvent under a vacuum. Use of a
hot-water bath to speed evaporation is highly recommended for this
process. It is not OK to distill off the alcohol at normal pressure, as
the heat will cause the nitrite and NO in solution to do bad things to the
To the residue left in the flask after removal of the alcohol, add
some toluene to rinse the product out of the flask into a sep funnel.
Next, put 300 ml of water into the flask to dissolve the catalyst if
PdCla or the mixed catalyst was used. Add the water solution to the
sep funnel to dissolve carried-over catalyst there, then drain this water
12 Studies On The Production OfTMA-2
solution of catalyst into a dark bottle and store in the dark until the
next batch. If PdBr2 was used, this step can be skipped. Just store the
filtered-out PdBra under water in the dark.
Now the toluene-phenylacetone solution should be distilled
through a Claisen adapter packed with some pieces of broken glass to
effect fractionation. The first of the toluene should be distilled at
normal pressure to remove water from solution azeotropically. The
b.p. of the azeotrope is 85° C, while water-free toluene boils at 110° C.
When the water is removed from solution, turn off the heat on the
distillation, and carefully apply a vacuum to remove the remainder of
the toluene. Then with the vacuum still on, resume heating the flask,
and collect the substituted phenylacetone. Methylenedioxyphenylacetone
distills at about 140° C and 160° C using a good aspirator
with cold water. A poor vacuum source leads to much higher
distillation temps and tar formation in the distilling flask. The yield
from the reaction is close to 150 ml of phenylacetone. Its color should be
clear to a light yellow. The odor of methylenedioxyphenylacetone is
much like regular phenylacetone, with a trace of the candy shop odor
of the safrole from which it was made.
A higher-boiling phenylacetone like 2,4,5-trimethyloxyphenylacetone
is better purified as the bisulfite addition product, unless a
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@Sunday, July 22, 2018 8:03:56 PM