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The plants build up alkaloids during dry seasons
and draw upon them for growth when the rains come. If the plants are harvested
during or after a wet spell, the alkaloid content may have dropped below 50
percent. If you have a soil test kit, you can get a good indication of the potency of
cacti growing wild. If the soil is rich in nitrogen, the plants are likely to be rich in
When harvesting peyote, many people uproot the entire plant. This is
unnecessary and wasteful. The roots contain no mescaline. Some of these plants
have taken a long time to reach their size. A cactus three inches in diameter may
be more than 20 years old. To collect peyote properly the button should be
cleanly decapitated slightly above ground level. When the roots are left intact
new buds will form where the old was removed. These will eventually develop
into full-size buttons which may be harvested as before. Faulty harvesting
method have seriously depleted populations of this cactus. Because of the
presence of several phenolic alkaloids peyote cacti do not spoil easily and may
be kept in their fresh form for several weeks after harvesting. If they are to be
kept longer than this they must be refrigerated, frozen, or dried. The enzymes
which cause the harvested plant to eventually decompose also destroy the
mescaline and other alkaloids. To dry peyote buttons lay them out in the hot sun
or in an oven at 250 degrees F until completely devoid of moisture.
OTHER PEYOTE-TYPE CACTI OF CENTRAL MEXICO
There are several cacti which are used by the Tarahumares and other tribes of
central Mexico as substitutes for peyote. Many of these cacti are now under
investigation for their alkaloidal content and sychopharmacological activity.
Progress is somewhat retarded in the studies of the effects of these plants
because almost all experimentation has been conducted on laboratory animals
rather than humans. Some of these cacti have been found to contain mescaline
and other related alkaloids with known sympathomimetic properties. Much further
research is needed on these plants and their activity. However, we will attempt to
bring the reader up to date on what is known about them at this time.
This small cactus is botanically called PELECYPHORA ASELLIFORMIS. It is
also known sometimes as the hatchet cactus because of its oddly flattened
tubercules. It is often found growing in the state of San Louis Potosi in central
Mexico. The plant contains traces of mescaline too minute to have any effect. It
also contains small amounts of anhalidine, anhaladine, hordenine, Nmethylmescaline,
pellotine, 3-demethyltrichocereine, B-phenethylamine, Nmethyl-
B-phenethylamine, 3,4-dimethoxy-B-pheneththyl-amine, N-methyl-3,4-
dimethoxy-B-phenethylamine, and 4-methoxy-B-phenethy- lamine. Most of these
are found in peyote but in much larger quantities.
The botanical name of this cactus is ARIOCARPUS RETUSUS. The Huichol
name tsuwiri means F
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Cacti tend to grow mostly during spring and autumn, to send down roots in the
summer, and to rest through winter. Although cactus cuttings may be planted
anytime of the year they stand the best chance if planted in the late spring. They
should be watered thoroughly once or twice a week depending upon how rapidly
moisture is lost. The soil an inch below the surface should always contain some
moisture. Watering can be cut back to less than half during the winter.
INCREASING THE POTENCY OF PSYCHOACTIVE CACTI There are several
factors which influence production of mescaline and related alkaloids in cacti.
Presence of a wide variety of trace minerals is important. Occasional watering
with Hoagland A-Z trace mineral concentrate provides these minerals. Combine
1 part concentrate with 9 parts water and water cacti with this once every two
Experiments conducted by Rosenberg, Mclaughlin and Paul at the University of
of Michigan, Ann Arbor in 1966 demonstrated that dopamine is a precursor of
mescaline in the peyote cactus. Tyramine and dopa were also found to be
mescaline precursors, but not as immediate and efficient as dopamine. It
appears that in the plant tyosine breaks down to become tyramine and dopa.
These then recombine to form dopamine which is converted to nor-mescaline
and finally to mescaline. One can take advantage to this sequence by inject-ing
each peyote plant with dopamine 4 weeks prior to harvesting. Much of the
dopamine will convert to mescaline during this time, giving a considerable
increase in the alkaloid of the plant. Prepare a saturated solution of free base
dopamine in a .05 N solution of hydrochloric acid and inject 1-2 cc into the root of
each plant and the same amount into the green portion above the root. Let the
needle penetrate to the center of the plant, inject slowly and allow the needle to
remain in place a few seconds after injection. It is best to deprive the plant of
water for 1-2 weeks before injection. This makes the plant tissues take up the
injection fluids more readily. If dopamine is not available, a mixture of tyramine
and dopa can be used instead 6 weeks before harvesting for comparable results.
San Pedro and other mescaline-bearing cacti can be similarly treated for
increased mescaline production. Inject at the base of the plant and again every
3-4 inches following a spiral pattern up the length of the plant. A series of booster
injections can be given to any of these cacti every 6-8 weeks and once again 4
weeks before harvesting for greater mescaline accumulation.
It is also possible to increase the macromerine and nor-macromerine content of
Doñana cacti using tyramine or DL-norepinephrine as precursors. Injections
should be given 20-25 days before harvesting. Series of injections can be given
45 days apart for higher alkaloid accumulation.
EXTRACTING PURE MESCALINE FROM PEYOTE OR SAN PEDRO
The isolation of mescaline from cacti
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alkaloids, to unreacted lysergic acid, or lysergic acid hydrazides to iso-
LSD and God knows what substances created by the mishandling of
the raw materials and product, a contaminated product is much easier to
make than a pure one.
The use of large volumes of solvents poses twin problems:
obtaining them and disposing of them. Both problems are made vastly
Practical LSD Manufacture
simpler by recycling the solvents. Just because a solvent has been
used once in a given stage of the process does not mean its useful
lifetime is over. For example, the solvent used for defatting the crop is
easily made as good as new by distilling it to free it of its load of fat.
Other solvents are not so easily recovered for re-use because the
procedure calls for the given solvent to be removed from the product
by vacuum evaporation. In this case, the solvent can be collected in a
cold trap placed along the vacuum line on its way to the vacuum
source. If a pump is used to create the vacuum, such a trap is vital to
prevent solvent vapors from getting into the pump oil, thereby ruining
the lubrication and the vacuum created.
A cold trap can be constructed of either glass or steel; it need only be
large enough to hold the solvent collected, and airtight so as not to ruin
the vacuum with leaks. This cold trap is then cooled down with dry ice
during vacuum evaporations to condense the solvent vapors in the trap.
The solvent recovered in the trap can be re-used in the given stage of
the process from whence it came. I would not co-mingle recovered
solvents from different stages. For example, chloroform from the
alkaloid extraction of the crops should be kept for that usage, and not
be used for LSD crystallization, because it will also contain some
ammonia and methanol.
The recovery of ether, for example, from method 2 of lysergic acid
production, poses a special problem. This problem is the formation of
explosive peroxides in ether during storage. Ether containing water
and alcohol, as would be the case for this recovered solvent, does not
form much peroxide. There is a possibility that dry ether can be made
free of peroxides by shaking the ether with some 5% ferrous sulfate
(FeSO4) solution in water prior to distilling. Failure to do this may
expose the operator to a fiery explosion during distillation. Ice water
flowing through the condenser, and an ice-chilled receiving flask, are
required to get an efficient condensation of the ether during
Keeping Out Of Trouble 71
Keeping Out Of Trouble
The dangers of LSD manufacturing do not end with the possibility
that the cooker may spill some of the stuff on himself and fry his
brain. There is a much more malignant danger facing those who
embark upon this course: Johnny Law.
The conduit through which those shit-eating dogs travel to get to
you is your associates. If you are cooking alone with no partners in
crime, your safety has been impro
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